Download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd . FOCUSING ON IELTS: READING AND WRITING SKILLS. a library does not have to be a building: it can . Focusing on IELTS-Reading and Writing - Free ebook download as PDF File . pdf), Text File .txt) or read book online for free. . Download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd .. e Focusing on IELTS Reading and W riti ng Skills. Read here Read [PDF] Download Focusing on IELTS - Reading and Writing Skills.

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Focusing on Ielts Reading and Writing Skills edition PDF, ebook free Download IELTS Reading Recent Actual Tests Vol 1 eBook PDF Ielts Reading, Reading. Focusing on IELTS Reading & Writing Skills by Jeremy Lindeck, , available at Book Depository with free delivery worldwide. IELTS preparation and practice: reading and writing: academic Here useful skills and strategies will be Then there are exercises for you to practise the skills.

Odessa summary IX. Unit 1: Reading 1 Strategies 29 1. Skimming 30 1. Scanning 32 Be prepared 3 Step 3: Reading intensively 33 Manage your time 3 Skills 40 Guess 3 Identifying question types 40 Write accurately 3 Dealing with vocabulary 41 Know what to expect 4 Recognising text organisation 1.

Writing General Training and Academic Task 2 2. Reading Using a range of grammar Unit 2: Writing features accurately Throughout this book there are examples to follow and exercises for you to complete. You can easily select the particular sections to study based on your specific needs. To get the most out of this book and achieve your best possible result on the IELTS test make sure you do all the exercises related to your test: A full Answer key is provided at the back of the book.

Both Unit 1: Reading and Unit 2: Writing contain the following six sections. The first section describes the specific IELTS test, with information about its length, how it is conducted and structured, what kinds of questions there are, and how it is assessed.

These tips will help you complete the test within the time allowed and get the best mark possible. For the Reading Test, this section introduces you to the various question types, and it includes exercises and examples for familiarising yourself with the requirements and nature of each question type.

For the Writing Test, this section introduces you to the criteria used to assess each of the Tasks. Skills are the abilities and language needed to perform well in the test - for example, the ability to organise your ideas logically in the Writing Test. Exercises are included throughout these sections to help you develop both strategies and skills. You should do these exercises without assistance and try to follow any time limits suggested.

This involves identifying your needs, finding appropriate practice materials and maintaining a regular study schedule. This section includes advice on improving your general reading and writing, as well as practising specifically for the IELTS test.

You can do them before you start studying the other sections of the book to give you an idea of your current abilities, or you can do them after working through the units to consolidate your learning. You should do them without any assistance and follow any time limits given. I would also like to acknowledge and thank Vivienne Winter and Kirstie Innes-Will at MacmiUan for their professionalism, ongoing support and suggestions.

Lastly, thanks to my colleagues for their warm support and encouragement, especially Mark Henderson and Walter Slamer. Jannette Greenwood. Publisher acknowledgments The author and publisher are grateful to the following for permission to reproduce copyright material: Woraput Chawalitphon,,! Robert Churchill,,! While evety care has been taken to trace and acknowledge copyright, the publishers tender their apologies for any accidental infringement where copyright has proved untraceable.

They would be pleased to come to a suitable arrangement with the rightful owner in each case. Reading skills and strategies summary This table indicates which exercises provide practice at different question types, skills and strategies for the IELTS ReadingTest.

Academic and General Training. U;i'Wl i ;,; I! HiU;i; il! General Training The texts for the three sections are taken from: Here are some suggestions about how to manage the test as successfully as possible. Be prepared Make sure you arrive at the examination centre early so that you are relaxed and calm. Dress comfortably. Bring pencils, as answers to the Reading Test must be written in pencil.

Manage your time The Reading Test requires careful time management and self-discipline. It is a good idea CO look quickly through the whole test first before you start. There may be recommendations for how long you spend on each passage or section.

If there are, you should plan out your time so you can stick to them. If there aren't, decide yourself how much time you need for each section. Remember that the sections increase in difficulty. For example, if more than about 15 minutes is spent on Section 1, then you will have less time for later and more difficult sections. Read actively and quickly, using the skills introduced in this book, and try co predict answers.

Make sure you read the questions carefully - each needs a different approach so use the different skills you will learn in this book. When answering the questions you should spend no more than about a minute on anyone question. If you cannot answer a question within this time, you should move on to tackle the next question. See the tips below for further advice. Guess Try to answer all the questions. If necessary, guess the answer.

There are no penalties for wrong answers. Write accurately Although this is a reading test, YOUT ability to write accurate answers is also relevant. Incorrect grammar or spelling in your answers will be penalised. Remember to write your answers directly onto the answer sheet. As you write them, check whether you are using correct grammar and spelling. Make sure you write your answer next co the correct number. Also, do not write 'true', 'false' or 'not given' if 'yes', 'no' or 'not given' are required.

You can cross out and change your answers - untidiness is not penalised, as long as your writing can be clearly understood. Make sure that you are thoroughly familiar with both the content and the structure of the test. For both tests, you should prepare by reading widely, practising the reading strategies and skills introduced in this book, expanding your vocabulary and learning more about synonyms, paraphrasing and summarising.

You will have practice in these areas in this book. Each test uses different types of texts; however, the reading strategies and skills required are the same, so you should complete all of the exercises in this book to give yourself the best advantage in the test. Academic In the Academic test, the reading passages are based on general topics.

They become progressively longer usually approximately words for each in each section of the text. Each passage is different in type. The first may be a more general description, the second may contain more analysis of a topic and the third is usually a longer argument that needs to be followed. This book will help you to identify the different features of each text type. It will also give you practice at reading longer texts. General Training There are three sections to the General Training test.

The first section may have two or three short texts or several quite brief texts, such as advertisements or notices. The second section has two texts related to workplace issues. The third section will consist of a longer developed description or instruction text. This book will give you practice at reading these different types of texts.

Each of these question types requires a different approach or strategy. Multiple-choice Identifying information questions. Identifying writers Matching information views or claims. Matching headings Matching features. Matching sentence Sentence completion endings.

Knowing how best to handle these different kinds of questions is essential to performing well in the test. To familiarise yourself with these question types, work through exercises 1 to 12 in this section.

In some question types for example, identifying information the questions follow the same order in which the information occurs in the passage; in other question types for example, matching information , the answers might be located anywhere in the text or texts. Remember for all questions to write your answer directly onto the answer sheet.

Always attempt all questions, even if you have to guess, because wrong answers are not penalised. Multiple-choice questions What do I have to do? With multiple-choice questions, you need to select the best answer from a list of options. You may have to choose one answer from four options, or choose rwo or three answers from a longer Jist of options. Multiple-choice questions may be either about specific information from the text or about the author's purpose overall.

Multiple-choice questions that refer to the text overall are known as global multiple-choice questions. Multiple-choice questions test your understanding of specific points or of the main points of the text. How do I approach multiple-choice questions? Multiple-choice questions will be presented in the order the answers appear in the text, so, to save time, make sure you answer the questions in order.

Don't answer the questions based on your own personal opinions or knowledge. For all multiple-choice questions begin by: From there, you have a choice of approaches. One is to read the question or sentence stem carefully and predict what you think the answer could be without looking at the options.

Scan to locate the section of the text where the answer can be found. There will be word clues, such as synonyms words with the same meaning as key words , to help you. Read that section carefully to check if your prediction about the answer is correct. Now read the four options ano select the one that matches the answer in the text.

Another approach is to read the options straight away after reading the question or stem, identify the correct section of the text and find the option that best matches the information in the text. Global multiple-choice questions test your understanding of the whole text. You will not find the exact answer written in the text, but it will be inferred. Make sure you are familiar with the whole text before answering global multiple-choice questions.

Use one of the above approaches. Seven ways to fast track success 1 Optimism: Simply put, if you do not in numerous vision statement". However, believe that some things can get better, you vision is creating something akin to a will bave no reason to try wholebeartedly. Can you see around at least since the s and we are yourself acting and interacting with the in the grip of it once more, but don' t let other people in this desired domain?

Are that put you off. Aside from some of the you succeeding? The other point to make overblown claims and simplicities, learning is 1 am not advocating some form of visual how to reframe your tbinking into a positive goal-setting. The purpose of envisaging is cast of mind is a useful skill. The curse of clever people is lead to other opportunities as you act. Children will often and categorise it into their existing schemas test their toys to destruction, or use them in and frameworks.

In this way they can be ' inappropriate' ways. It means coming to blind 10 nuances and nuggets that can an idea without preconceptions to see it for change their lives. The curse of stupid what it is. It is a bit like throwing away the people is that they don't bother analysing instruction manual. The Zen Buddhist term new information in the first place.

The for this concept is Shoshin. This is perhaps best summed complacent maintenance of the status quo. This is a concept pioneered my principles and if you don't like them.

People who believe they and it depends on how you hold them up to can successfully complete a training course the light as to what you will see.

I'll bet the most important without this self-belief. Self-efficacy is not things you've done in your life involved a just about positive self-talk though this can degree of risk that met with resistance from help but also about engaging in action steps some quarters.

II's therefore 4 Vision: Vision has received bad press important to recognise that giving in is because it has been overused and devalued ultimately your choice and yours alone. B is effective if caution is taken. C is far too simple to be good. D detracts because of overblown claims. A their analysis or non-analysis of information.

B their blindness to nuances and life-changing nuggets. C the different ways that they change and hope. D one group being more content with the status quo. A commence a training course or diet successfully. B engage predominantly in positive self-talk techniques. C develop a positive self-belief in achieving success. D engage in several steps including the provision of proof. A creating opportunities through being actively engaged. B developing forms of visual goal-setting in a desired domain.

C making positive statements of honesty and integrity. D feeling comfortable and successful through interaction. B throwaway the instruction manual. C engage in spontaneous play. D have preconceptions about their toys. B looking at issues differently. C assessing how diamonds are valued. D seeing the flaws in brilliance. B failing to achieve has a number of causes. C taking responsibility for one's own convictions is key. D giving in has some element of resistance from others. B warn about potential negative factors.

C give information about the idea of action steps. D identify the mind steps that aid success. Identifying information What do I have to do? For questions that require you to identify information, you need to decide whether a statement is true or false according to the information given in the text, or whether no information about the statement is given.

Your answer will be either 'true', 'false' or 'not given', True statements agree with the information in the text, False information contradicts or is the opposite of the information in the text. If there is no information about the statement in the text, or if it neither agrees with nor contradicts the information in the text, the correct answer is 'not given'. It is particularly important not to confuse 'not given' statements with 'false' statements.

This question rype tests your ability to identify specific information. How do I approach identifying information? Identifying information questions will be presented in the order the answers appear in the text, so make sure you answer the questions in order to save time. The questions will relate to cwo to five paragraphs. Read the statement and underline key words.

Try to predict synonyms of these words which maybe used in the text. Reading " Scan to the section where the information related to the statement begins by identifying key information. Read that section carefully to check whether the statement: Remember that the question may paraphrase the relevant information.

If the correct answer is 'false', the statement will explicitly contradict the information in the text possibly using a paraphrase. If you can't find the information in the text, the correct answer is probably 'not given'.

It is unusual for the first question to be 'not given'. Exercise 2 Identifying information - - -- Read the following text and answer the questions that follow. The world the box made On April 26, , a crane lifted fifty-eight aluminium or steel hox with two enormous aluminium truck bodies aboard an ageing doors at one end.

The value of this utilitarian tanker ship moored in Newark, New Jersey. The container is at the core of a highly Houston, where fifty-eight trucks waited to automated system for moving goods from take on the metal boxes and haul them to their anywhere to anywhere with a minimum of cost destinations. Such was the beginning of a and complication. The container made shipping cheap and Decades later, when enormous trailer trucks by doing so changed the shape of the world hauling nothing but stacks of boxes rumble economy.

The thousands of ill-paid workers through the night, it is hard to fathom just how who once made their livings loading and much the container has changed the world. Cities that had been centres shoes and Mexican vacuum c1eaners in stores in of maritime commerce for centuries, such as the middle of Kansas. Japanese families did nol New York and Liverpool, saw their waterfronts eat beef from Wyoming, and French clothing decline wilh startling speed. At the same designers did not have their clothes sewn in time, the manufacturers located near them for Vietnam.

Before the container, transporting convenience moved away. Venerable ship lines goods was so expensive that it did not pay to were crushed by the enormous cosl of adapting ship many things halfway around the world. Merchant mariners, who What is it about the container that is so had shipped out to see the world, had their important?

Focusing on IELTS Reading & Writing Skills

Surely not the thing itself - an shore leave reduced to a few bours ashore in a. Sprawling ready to leave as soon as high-speed cranes industrial complexes employing thousands to finished moving the giant boxes off amI on manufacture products from start to finish gave the ships. Sleepy ever-lengthening supply chains. Poor countries harbours such as Pusan and Seattle moved into could realistically dream of becoming suppliers the front ranks of the world's ports and massive to wealthy countries far away.

Huge industrial new ports were built in places like Felixstowe complexes mushroomed in places like Los in the UK and Tanjung Pelepas in Malaysia, Angeles and Hong Kong only because the where none had been before. Small towns with cost of bringing raw materials in and sending cheap land and low wages enticed factories finished goods out had dropped like a stone. Do the fOllowing statements agree with the information given in the reading passage?

J Unit 1: Your answer should be either 'yes', 'no' or 'not given'. You answer 'yes' if a statement agrees with the opinions or claims of the writer. You answer 'no' if the statement contradicts the writer's opinion or argument. If the text gives no information on what the writer thinks about the statement, the correct answer is 'not given'.

Be careful to distinguish between 'no' and 'not given'. This question type tests your ability to identify views or opinions. How do I approach identifying writer's viewslclaims? Scan to the section where the information related to the statement begins. If the correct answer is 'no', the statement will explicitly contradict the views of the author presented in the text possibly using a paraphrase. If you can't find a statement giving the author's opinion on the subject in the text, the correct answer is probably 'not given'.

Remember to write 'yes' or 'no', and not 'true' or 'false' on the answer sheet. The pursuit of happiness One way or another, everything we do is section to track your investments. You're hoping for news that they're doing well, which reading ttils because you hope it will be a will make you feel good. If you read the business If you're working hard in pursuit of.

According will make you happier. This is without exception. We're programmed Whatever different means they employ, they all to pursue it in ways that contribute to our tend to this end. The cause of some going to war, biological fitness. Whether we actually achieve and of others avoiding it, is the same desire in it, nature doesn't much care.

This is the The pursuit of happiness is humans' basic motive of every action of every man Thus we've evolved never to be puts it the opposite way: The good news, however, is that most of 'People want to be happy, and all the other us do achieve a fair bit of happiness.

Surveys things they want are typically meant to be unfailingly show that most people are quite means to that end. Even when people forgo happy most of the time. We are programmed happiness in the moment - by dieting when to believe we'll be happier if we're physically they could be eating, or working late when they and materially secure, if we have a mate, if we could be sleeping - they are usually doing so in have high social status, and many other things.

Do the following statements agree with the claims of the writer itt the reading passage? Sections or paragraphs will be labelled A, B, C, etc. You write the letter corresponding to the correct paragraph or section on the answer sheet. The instructions will indicate that you can use a letter more than once. This type of question tests your ability to identify specific information that might not be in the same order in the text as in the questions. How do I approach matching information? You could also read the topic sentence of each paragraph to identify what each paragraph will cover.

Matching information Read the following passage and answer the questions that follow. With a lotal global coastline of 60, km, tropical areas are attracting tourists in increasing numbers. This large increase in tourism means that there is a need for quality tourist resorts in previous ly undeveloped areas.

B Up until the , the drawcard for tourists was beach and sea - simple attractions that did not necessitate quality accommodation. In fact, this aspect of the tropical holiday. This involves more affluent and discrimioating tourists from providing indoor environmental comfort at developed countries, quality accommodation a resort without the need for powered means facilities that cope with the climatic stress of such as air-conditioning or even electric the tropics have become a priority.

Most eco-tourists would be happy to adjust to the climate of their tropical C This situation, where tourists from developed resort if the extremes of heat and humidity countries vacation in developing tropical were reduced. It can also be argued that countries with expectations of quality at a adaptation to the local climate is healthier low price, has resulted in some undesirable than the constant low temperatures provided effects.

At the same time, however, a new by air-conditioning. Another factor to consider is develop tourist resorts in environmentally the fact that tourists on holiday want to sensitive areas have resulted in heightened relax and experience something different. Even so, it must be acknowledged Queensland when islands in the Whitsunday that tourists are different in their needs and Passage were to be developed to the expectations from the local people and resort possible detriment of the Great Barrier planners needs to take this into account.

Protests have also occurred in many other tropical areas, for example, Borneo, the Bahamas and the site Basin. Questions The text has six paragraphs, A-F. Which paragraph contains the following infonnation? Write the correct letter, A-F, for each. You may use each letter more than once.

Matching headings What do I have to do? In matching headings questions you have to identify the main idea of each paragraph or section in the text by selecting the correct heading from a list of possible headings. There will be more headings than paragraphs, so you won't use all the headings. Sometimes an example will be given for you to follow.

This question type tests your ability to identify the main idea of a paragraph and to distinguish it from supporting ideas. How do I approach matching headings? Underline key words.

The main idea may extend over more than one sentence.

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Remember that there will be leftover headings that won 't match any paragraphs. Exercise 5 Matching headings Read the passage in Exercise 4 and answer the questions that follow. Questions Choose the correct heading for paragraphs A-F from the list of headings below. Write the correct number, i-ix. Iv Adjustment needs of staff viii Concerns lead to action. Matching features What do I have to do?

For matching features questions, you are given a number of statements, which you need to match to items or options in a box. This List of options may include, for example, types of architecture, historical time periods, different scientific theories or the names of researchers.

Both the statements and the options may be synonyms or paraphrases of the information in the text. Matching features questions will not be presented in the same order as the information in the text. Be aware that technical vocabulary may be used - for example, words associated with a specific discipline, such as architecture, or with a branch of science.

This question type tests your ability to see relationships in a text and identify theories and opinions. How do I approach matching features? Through the powers vested in its founding Charter, it can take action on a wide range of issues, and provide a forum for its Member States to express their views, through the General Assembly, the Security Council, the Economic and Social Council and other bodies and committees.

Although it is best known deliberative organ of the UN and is composed for peacekeeping, conflict resolution and of representatives of all Member States. There humanitarian assistance, the UN and its are a number of committees for example, one specialised agencies operate many other related to the peaceful use of outer space , programs that affect our lives and make the programs and funds, and research and training world a better place.

Some of these areas institutes, as well as other UN entities. It consists of five permanent belongs to the UN and membership totals members and ten non-permanent members; countries.

When States become Members of the non-permanent members each hold the the United Nations, they agree to accept the position for one year. A number of UN bodies, obligations of the UN Charter, an international including the Department of Peacekeeping treaty that sets out basic principles of Operations, the Counter-terrorism Committee, international relations. It does not make laws. It does, however, provide also operates the International Narcotics Control the means to help resolve international conflicts Board.

Voting in ECOSOC is by simple majority and formulate policies on matters affecting of all members; each member has one vote. At the UN, all the Member States The Trusteeship Council, which comprises large and small, rich and poor, with differing the five permanent members of the Security political views and social systems, have a voice Council, was established in by the UN and a vote in this process.

Charter to provide international supervision. By , all advisory opinions to the UN and its specialised Trust Territories had attained self-government agencies. It gives advisory opinions on legal or independence. Match each' statement with the correct responsibility, A-C.

Write the correct letter. A-C, beside the statement. NB You may use any letter more than once. Matching sentence endings What do I have to do? For matching sentence endings questions, you are given sentence stems and you need to select the correct sentence ending from a list of options. The correct combination will correctly reflect specific information in the text. There will be fewer sentence stems than options, so some options will not be used.

The sentence stems will be in the same order as the information in the text. This question type tests your ability to identify specific information. Look for synonyms. Exercise 7 Matching sentence endings Read the passage in Exercise 6 and answer the questions that follow.

Questions Complete each sentence with the correct ending, A-F, below. Sentence completion What do I have to do? For sentence completion questions, you have to find a word or phrase in the passage that correctly completes a sentence.

You will be told how many words you can use. You will not need to use. Hyphenated words count as one word. The questions will be in the same order as the information in the text.

This question type tests your abiliry to locate specific information in the text. How do I approach sentence completion questions? Identify what rype of words you are looking for: Exercise 8 Sentence completion Read the passage in Exercise 6 and answer the questions that follow. QU8stions1G Complete the sentences below. The information needed to fill the gaps will come from one section of the text.

You may have to write one, two or three words. You will not need to use contractions such as won't. There are two forms of this question type: There will be more options than there are gaps. This type of question tests your understanding of the main ideas or details of a part of a text. How do I approach summarylnoteltablelflow-chart completion questions?

If you haven't already done so, skim the whole text first to get an overview of where information is located and how the text is organised. Of these, the The organ responsible for Another organ manages Another important area relates to the managing oflegal advice and Underline the key words before the gap and check the words after the gap to see what part of speech is needed: Read the appropriate section carefully for meaning.

Look for synonyms of key words. For example, it may be worded in the passive rather than the active voice. Building the Sydney Harbour Bridge One of the world's most recognisable and admired engineering structures is the Sydney Harbour Bridge. Its great arch, soaring above the blue water of Sydney Harbour, dominating the skyline, is a truly impressive sight. Even more astounding is the fact that the bridge was built in a low-technology era by hundreds of manual workers, operating high in the air above the watching popUlation of Sydney.

Today, many people who use the bridge may not think much about those workers, but they should appreciate continued Eacb side of the bridge was not started at the The challenges of building a bridge on this same time - the southern part was started first site were enormous because of the width of and the northern part followed seven months the harbour - almost I kilometre at the chosen later, so any problems that became evident point.

Even so, because the growing city was could be rectified. Each side of the arch wa. In fact, it would be point of meeting. Sitting on top of the two top almost years umi I the dream was realised arches throughout were the two creeper cranes and the northern and southern sides of the city that lifted workers and essential materials from were finally connected.

How was the bridge actually built? The The final point of the arches meeting was citizens of the era, who watched its progress achieved in when first the lower arch over six years of construction, would have been and then the upper arch were manoeuvred able to describe the process in detail, but we in and then riveted into position.

After this came the modern age may not quite appreciate how the hazardous operation needed to create it was done. It is necessary to understand the the roadway. First, pairs of hangers, up to basic structure first. The main components are: Once each pair of these was safely lower sections known as chords installed, a lOO-ton cross girder was lifted and a series of connected cross girders, attached to the hangers so that the road and supporting the busy roadway railway could be constructed.

Only after all this two rows of elegant vertical hangers, linking was complete were the pylons constructed and the arch and roadway. It might be thought that the pylons came In early , the road and railway bridge was first, but in fact each of the arches was built tested for strength by driving 30 trains onto the first, in sections.

During construction, each track. Finally, on 10 March , in front of new chord was attached to the previous one dignitaries and the general public, the big wait by cables secured to the ground.

As each new was over and the bridge was officially opened. Questions Complete the summary below. Background to the Sydney Harbour Bridge The Sydney Harbour Bridge, one of the world's most distinctive structures, is an astonishing feat of engineering because of its very public construction in a 1 " However, despite its being built mainly by manual labour, there has been no need for replacement of any In the year period until then, Sydneysiders had long dreamt of a They were able to watch the progress of construction in a way that those in the They knew the names also of the How the bridge was built.

Arches At point of meeting arches moved and Cranes used to raise Construction and facing of pylons with Diagram label completion What do I have to do? For diagram label completion questions, you have to use words or phrases from the text to complete labels on a diagram. You will not need co use contractions such as won't.

The information will usually come from one section of the text and is often in the form of a description. How do I approach diagram label questions? Read this section carefully for meaning and see how it relates to the diagram. Look for word groups. Exercise 11 Diagram label completion Read the following text and answer the questions that follow.

This device once aided enclosing a watertight chamber where water these areas economically. This basic structure railways took over, and it is still in use today is still in operation today.

One variation involves for recreational sailors. A third essential element of the system is obstructions such as mill weirs, rapids and the need for lock gear, such as vertical panels or dams that alter the water height. Even though tbey may seem complicated, One type of lock operates in this way: Early attempts to build locks, over gates, angled outwards, are kept closed by water a thousand years ago, involved managing pressure.

When the water in the pound reaches differem water levels with one lifting gate or the same height as the high side of the river. However, easily outwards so that the vessel can sail into. After the gates are closed, water is the pound connected to tunnels. Closing the then discharged from the pound by closing the lower val ve allows water to enter the chamber upper valve and opening the lower valve until through these wall ports.

Another method of the water level drops to that of the lower part of adding or removing water is used in the non- ihe river, carrying the boat with it.

At this point, mitred gate system where venical panels or the lower gates open and the boat exits. The 'paddles' are inserted through each gate and are reverse occurs for vessels moving upstream. The usual one While many locks need to be professionally involves a valve system, as described, which operated by trained staff at a control post, such is operated either mechanically or electrically, as at Bobcaygeon, some can be easily managed and which allows water to either drain or fill.

Questions Complete the diagram below. The lock at Bobcaygeon Short-answer questions What do I have to do? For short-answer questions, you have to answer brief questions about information in the text.

You need to find the answer in the text and write the correct number of words. If you write more words than asked for you will receive no marks. Short-answer questions are given in the order of the text. This type of question tests your ability to identify and understand precise factual information.

How do I approach short-answer questions? Read the question carefully to identify what you need to locate and what the word limit is. Try to predict the answer-this will improve you focus as you scan and read the text. Scan to the relevant part of the text, using word clues to help you. Be aware of the type of words you are looking for for example, numbers, a noun or a prepositional phrase and the word limit.

Identify key words often grouped and their synonyms. Short-answer questions will be presented in the order the answers appear in the text, so make sure, to save time, you answer the questions in order. You do not need to scan the whole text again, because the answer to the next question will appear after the answer to the previous question. Exercise 12 Short-answer questions Read the text in Exercise 11 and answer the following questions.

Questions Answer the following questions. Being an effective and efficient reader means more than knowing what each word in the passage means. It means being able to read using different strategies depending on your purpose for reading. Successful candidates use three ways of reading. By using these strategies, you move from a general overview to increasingly detailed, focused reading depending on the question being asked and your purpose.

When you start to read a passage you need to ask yourself these three questions: What is its purpose? What is my purpose? What techniques should I use? The following table gives some examples of how you might respond to these questions for different text types. Wffiijil ': A letter from a friend For pleasure and Read the letter intensively; that is, read it information from the first word to the last word, A magazine For pleasure and Skim the magazine; that is.

If an article seems interesting , read more until you finish the article or you lose interest. Move on to the next heading or photo. An airline ticket For information, Scan the ticket; that is, look over it quickly e.

Ignore the other information. An academic text To follow an Skim for an overview to see if the text is argument appropriate; read ali or parts intensively to foliow the argument. L -- This is described in more detail below. Step 1: Skimming To skim text, your eyes should move methodically across lines and downwards, taking in groups of words, rather than individual words, if possible. It takes practice to develop confidence with this skill.

In the Reading Test, skim the passage so that you have a general understanding of the main points of the text without looking at each word - that is, read it to get an overview. Try to find the main point of each paragraph. This is often, though not always, the first sentence. The sentence with the main point is called the topic sentence. Read together, all the topic sentences of a passage should provide a reasonable summary of the passage.

Topic sentences have two parts: Consider the following topic sentence:. The widespread use of computers has resulted in enormous changes in all areas of business. You can guess that 'the widespread use of computers' is the theme. The rest of the sentence gives information new ideas about this theme. It forms the rheme of this sentence, and it will be discussed further in the rest of the paragraph.

Other sentences also have themes and rhemes. Some sentences may also have subordinate clauses that is, the supporting information - you can ignore these when skimming.

Concentrate only on content words to get a general idea of the text, and ignore less important information. For example, consider this example of a sentence with a subordinate clause:.


A hard durable mineral called zircon, which is found in most sands, is used for abrasive and insulation purposes. While skimming, it is enough to understand that ' This mineral is used for something ,. The subordinate clause 'which is found in most sands' is not important at this stage. Or, say you are skimming this sentence:.

A recent study by Jerome Hagan found that there was a correlation between how babies reacted to new experiences and their behaviour as teenagers. It is enough to understand that a study showed something about babies and teenagers.

If you later find a question that relates to this sentence, you can come back and read it more intensively. You need to know how many questions there are and approximately what the questions are about. Exercise 13 gives you practice at skimming.

Academic Writing Task 1

To encourage you to skim as quickly as possible there is a suggested time limit. Exercise 13 Skimming 1 Skim the following passage as quickly as possible and underline the topic sentence in each paragraph, Identify the theme and new idea in each topic sentence, Remember to ignore subordinate clauses or supporting information, Time limit: Computers A Computers are now a commonplace feature its use of vacuum tubes and its restricted of daily life and it is hard to imagine a purpose.

The second generation, with world without them. Used extensively its use of transistors, led to a remarkable in government, commerce, education, reduction in size and opportunities for medicine, security, aviation and in the applications in previously unimagined domestic sphere, to name but a few areas, areas. The third generation, with the they have transformed the way that daily introduction of integrated circuits, resulted life is transacted.

B For all their apparent modernity, however, the The fourth generation used microprocessors idea behind computers is surprisingly ancient. In fact, the Romans used a type of constantly evolving range of applications, abacus over 2, years ago. However, it some of which were previously thought to is only since the midls that electronic be fanciful. These than a century have been astonishing, For developments are still continuing. Step 2: Scanning The next strategy to use in your three-step approach to the Reading Test is scanning.

Scan the passage to locate the specific information you need to answer each question. With scanning your eyes move around - up and down, backwards and forwards to locate where the answer to a question will be. When you are scanning to locate some specific information, it is not necessary to read and understand every word in the passage; just look for things related to the main idea of the question.

These will often be the key words of a sentence, for example the subject, main verb and object. As you look at each sentence in the text, you need to understand only enough to answer the question: For example, if you were trying to locate a section about shoes, you would scan the sentence below and know that it is not about shoes so you should move on.

Like perfumes, cosmetics were originally used as a support in religious ritual, the ceremonial aspects gradually being lost as both men and women adorned themselves with cosmetics,. Exercise 14 gives you practice at scanning text to find where answers are located.

To encourage you to scan quickly, there is a time limit. Exercise 14 Scanning In the following text, each sentence has been numbered, Read the first question before reading the text, then scan the text to find which sentence contains the information you need to answer this question, Write the number of the relevant sentence from the passage next to it. Then move on to the second question, Questions are not presented in the same order as the information, The first one has been done as an example for you to follow, Time limit: Step 3: Reading intensively After you have scanned for and located the information you need to answer the question, your next step is to read intensively.

Unlike with skimming and scanning, where you only need to understand some key words in each sentence, with reading intensively it may be necessary to understand every word to answer the question.

To encourage you to read as quickly as possible, there is a suggested time limit. Exercise 15 Reading intensively Answer the questions below. Scan the passage about computers in Exercise 14 to locate the sentences that contain the answers. Then read those sentences intensively. Use no more than three words or a number in each answer. Time limit: Be careful to follow the suggested time limits. Three-step reading approach Skim the passage and the questions to get a quick general understanding.

Scan the passage to locate the information you need to answer each question. Read this information intensively so that you can answer the questions. Allow no more than three minutes to skim the passage to get a quick general understanding. Wave energy Wave energy, which differs from tidal power from pressure fluctuations below the surface.

These waves floats on the surface, wave surge devices and are caused by a number of forces , including oscillating water columns. The latter are the the gravitational pull of the Sun and Moon.

The first is that there are a water. A feature of wave energy is that it is large number of locations capable of being irregular and oscillating - that is, vibrating. These include the western seaboard Interest in renewable, non-polluting forms of Europe, the north coast of the United of energy has led to the development of new Kingdom, the Pacific coastlines of North technologies to harness the energy of waves. The this since the ls, it is only in recent years presence of strong, reliable westerly winds is that fledgling energy technologies have been a significant factor.

Other advantages include developed that could generate commercially the fact that the energy source is free, with no viable amounts of electricity on a greater scale waste and with significant amounts of energy in the future.

This electricity could be used for being able to be produced. The cost of installing the into reservoirs. The energy wave energy. It may be taken from locations levels tend to fluctuate, making it difficult for either at or near the shoreline or further out to power generators, which need a constant steady sea and either from the surface of the ocean or flow of power.

The devices installed need to survive the storm and saltwater damage. Noise and visual pollution may have a negative impact on coastal communities, and the fishing industry may be affected.

While this technology has enormous potential to provide large amounts of electricity, its use may be restricted by the above factors as well as by the competitive disadvantages it faces in an energy market dominated by subsidised low-cost fossil fuels and nuclear generation facilities. Questions Match each sentence with the correct ending, A-G, below.

Read the following passage and answer the questions on page Jatropha - a plant for the future A Jatropha is a succulent plant that grows D Its great advantage is that it can be grown in in the arid and semi-arid tropics in poorer. Its name as a soil reclamation plant.

From this coffee, sugar, vegetables and fruit trees. Also, it can be deduced that it has medicinal apart from its use as a source of biofuel, it benefits.

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Thank You For Visiting. You just clipped your first slide! Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later. Now customize the name of a clipboard to store your clips.Being an effective and efficient reader means more than knowing what each word in the passage means.

This involves more affluent and discrimioating tourists from providing indoor environmental comfort at developed countries, quality accommodation a resort without the need for powered means facilities that cope with the climatic stress of such as air-conditioning or even electric the tropics have become a priority. In terms of practical applications, the findings of this study can act as an intelligible model to assist both learners and teachers in English language learning and teaching.

When an opposing piece threatens a king. B Up until the , the drawcard for tourists was beach and sea - simple attractions that did not necessitate quality accommodation. Esperanto is used internationally across language boundaries by about one million people. You must do a college assignment about the possible future of computer technology.

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